5. Until Lawrence Lessig launched Creative Commons on May 16, 2002, most OA initiatives gave no thought to OA-appropriate licenses. The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), for example, said that “the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.” But there were no licenses at the time allowing copyright holders to retain these rights and waive the rest. Most OA providers simply put work online with no license at all, leaving unclear which uses were permitted and which were not, and leaving users to choose between the delay of seeking permission and the risk of proceeding without it. CC licenses solved this problem elegantly and were quickly adopted by OA-inclined authors (including scholarly authors), musicians, film-makers, and photographers.
When PLoS and BioMed Central adopted CC licenses for their journals, many OA journals followed suit. Both Google and Yahoo now support filters that pick out content using CC machine-readable licenses. CC licenses aren’t the only licenses to break with the “all rights reserved” default, but outside the special domain open-source software they are by far the most widely used. Today over 50 million online objects carry CC licenses OA literature doesn’t strictly need licenses, which explains why many OA pages still don’t use any. But licenses can inform users that OA literature is really OA, assure users that permitted uses are really permitted, and help authors enforce any exceptions. CC launched Science Commons in early 2005. Under the leadership of John Wilbanks, Science Commons now has projects in OA publishing and archiving, OA data and databases, and licenses optimized for scientific content.
6. A large number of U.S. universities have adopted OA-friendly policies or resolutions. These include Carleton College, Case Western Reserve University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Duke University, Gustavus Adolphus College, Harvard University, Indiana University at Bloomington, Indiana University – Purdue University at Indianapolis, Macalaster College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, North Carolina State University, Oregon State University, St. Olaf College, Stanford University, University of California at Berkeley, University of California at San Francisco, University of California at Santa Cruz, University of Connecticut, University of Kansas, University of Maryland, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Wisconsin. Some of these university actions are policies to promote OA; some are resolutions by the Faculty Senate urging the adoption of such policies; and some are decisions to cancel expensive journals by the hundreds, accompanied by public statements on the unsustainability of the current subscription model and the need to explore alternatives