3. The Public Library of Science (PLoS) was launched by a letter to the editor in Science Magazine for March 23, 2001, quickly followed by an open letter, eventually gathering over 30,000 signatures, calling on science journals to provide OA to their full contents by September 1, 2001, or the signatories would submit their work elsewhere. The deadline came and went without any significant publisher concessions and without any significant action by the signatories. The PLoS founders —Stanford biologist Patrick Brown, Berkeley biologist Michael Eisen, and Nobel laureate and former NIH Director Harold Varmus— decided that if existing publishers would not convert existing journals to OA, then they would have to become publishers themselves. PLoS launched its first journal, PLoS Biology, in October 2003, and its second, PLoS Medicine, in October 2005. PLoS currently publishes six OA journals and plans to add more. In 2005 PLoS Biology earned an impact factor of 13.9, the highest ranking in the category of general biology.
4. There are over a dozen open-source software packages for creating open-access, OAI-compliant repositories. One of the two leaders, DSpace, is American. DSpace was developed by MIT and Hewlett-Packard, launched in November 2002, and is now used in over 100 OA repositories worldwide. MIT has other important OA initiatives, most notably OpenCourseWare, a pioneering program of OA courses now emulated by a growing number of other institutions around the world. MIT also sponsors the CWSpace (archiving open courseware files in DSpace), Open Knowledge Initiative (specs for open components of learning software), SIMILE (Semantic Interoperability of Metadata and Information in unLike Environments), and TEK (a bridge over the digital divide that distributes search engine results by email).